This project might be open to known security vulnerabilities, which can be prevented by tightening the version range of affected dependencies. Find detailed information at the bottom.

Crate gix

Dependencies

(57 total, 40 outdated, 6 possibly insecure)

CrateRequiredLatestStatus
 async-std^1.12.01.12.0up to date
 document-features^0.2.00.2.10up to date
 gix-actor^0.28.00.31.4out of date
 gix-archive^0.6.00.13.1out of date
 gix-attributes^0.20.00.22.2out of date
 gix-commitgraph^0.22.00.24.2out of date
 gix-config^0.31.00.37.0out of date
 gix-credentials^0.21.00.24.2out of date
 gix-date^0.8.00.8.7up to date
 gix-diff^0.37.00.44.0out of date
 gix-discover^0.26.00.32.0out of date
 gix-features^0.36.00.38.2out of date
 gix-filter^0.6.00.11.2out of date
 gix-fs ⚠️^0.8.00.11.1out of date
 gix-glob^0.14.00.16.3out of date
 gix-hash^0.13.10.14.2out of date
 gix-hashtable^0.4.00.5.2out of date
 gix-ignore^0.9.00.11.2out of date
 gix-index ⚠️^0.26.00.33.0out of date
 gix-lock^11.0.014.0.0out of date
 gix-macros^0.1.00.1.5up to date
 gix-mailmap^0.20.00.23.4out of date
 gix-negotiate^0.9.00.13.1out of date
 gix-object^0.38.00.42.3out of date
 gix-odb^0.54.00.61.0out of date
 gix-pack^0.44.00.51.0out of date
 gix-path ⚠️^0.10.00.10.9maybe insecure
 gix-pathspec^0.4.00.7.5out of date
 gix-prompt^0.7.00.8.5out of date
 gix-protocol^0.41.10.45.1out of date
 gix-ref ⚠️^0.38.00.44.1out of date
 gix-refspec^0.19.00.23.0out of date
 gix-revision^0.23.00.27.1out of date
 gix-revwalk^0.9.00.13.1out of date
 gix-sec^0.10.00.10.6up to date
 gix-status^0.2.00.10.0out of date
 gix-submodule^0.5.00.11.0out of date
 gix-tempfile^11.0.014.0.0out of date
 gix-trace^0.1.30.1.9up to date
 gix-transport ⚠️^0.38.00.42.1out of date
 gix-traverse^0.34.00.39.1out of date
 gix-url^0.25.00.27.3out of date
 gix-utils^0.1.50.1.12up to date
 gix-validate^0.8.00.8.5up to date
 gix-worktree ⚠️^0.27.00.34.0out of date
 gix-worktree-state^0.4.00.11.0out of date
 gix-worktree-stream^0.6.00.13.0out of date
 once_cell^1.14.01.19.0up to date
 parking_lot^0.12.10.12.3up to date
 prodash^26.2.228.0.0out of date
 regex^1.6.01.10.5up to date
 reqwest^0.11.130.12.5out of date
 serde^1.0.1141.0.204up to date
 signal-hook^0.3.90.3.17up to date
 smallvec^1.9.01.13.2up to date
 thiserror^1.0.261.0.63up to date
 unicode-normalization^0.1.190.1.23up to date

Dev dependencies

(5 total, 1 outdated)

CrateRequiredLatestStatus
 anyhow^11.0.86up to date
 async-std^1.12.01.12.0up to date
 is_ci^1.1.11.2.0up to date
 serial_test^2.0.03.1.1out of date
 walkdir^2.3.22.5.0up to date

Security Vulnerabilities

gix-transport: gix-transport indirect code execution via malicious username

RUSTSEC-2024-0335

Summary

gix-transport does not check the username part of a URL for text that the external ssh program would interpret as an option. A specially crafted clone URL can smuggle options to SSH. The possibilities are syntactically limited, but if a malicious clone URL is used by an application whose current working directory contains a malicious file, arbitrary code execution occurs.

The first gix crate with the fix is version 0.62.0, and the first fixed gix CLI is version 0.35. gix-transport at version v0.42 is the lowest-level plumbing crate with the fix.

Details

This is related to the patched vulnerability RUSTSEC-2023-0064, but appears less severe due to a greater attack complexity. Since https://github.com/Byron/gitoxide/pull/1032, gix-transport checks the host and path portions of a URL for text that has a - in a position that will cause ssh to interpret part of all of the URL as an option argument. But it does not check the non-mandatory username portion of the URL.

As in Git, when an address is a URL of the form ssh://username@hostname/path, or when it takes the special form username@hostname:dirs/repo, this is treated as an SSH URL. gix-transport will replace some characters in username with their %-based URL encodings, but otherwise passes username@hostname as an argument to the external ssh command. This happens even if username begins with a hyphen. In that case, ssh treats that argument as an option argument, and attempts to interpret and honor it as a sequence of one or more options possibly followed by an operand for the last option.

This is harder to exploit than RUSTSEC-2023-0064, because the possibilities are constrained by:

  • The difficulty of forming an option argument ssh accepts, given that characters such as =, /, and \, are URL-encoded, : is removed, and the argument passed to ssh contains the @ sign and subsequent host identifier, which in an effective attack must be parseable as a suffix of the operand passed to the last option.

    The inability to include a literal = prevents the use of -oNAME=VALUE (e.g., -oProxyCommand=payload). The inability to include a literal / or \ prevents smuggling in a path operand residing outside the current working directory, including on Windows. (Although a ~ character may be smuggled in, ssh does not perform its own tilde expansion, so it does not form an absolute path.)

  • The difficulty, or perhaps impossibility, of completing a connection (other than when arbitrary code execution has been achieved). This complicates or altogether prevents the use of options such as -A and -X together with a connection to a real but malicious server. The reason a connection cannot generally be completed when exploiting this vulnerability is that, because the argument gix-transport intends as a URL is treated as an option argument, ssh treats the subsequent non-option argument git-upload-pack as the host instead of the command, but it is not a valid host name.

    Although ssh supports aliases for hosts, even if git-upload-pack could be made an alias, that is made difficult by the URL-encoding transformation.

However, an attacker who is able to cause a specially named ssh configuration file to be placed in the current working directory can smuggle in an -F option referencing the file, and this allows arbitrary command execution.

This scenario is especially plausible because programs that operate on git repositories are often run in untrusted git repositories, sometimes even to operate on another repository. Situations where this is likely, such that an attacker could predict or arrange it, may for some applications include a malicious repository with a malicious submodule configuration.

Other avenues of exploitation exist, but appear to be less severe. For example, the -E option can be smuggled to create or append to a file in the current directory (or its target, if it is a symlink). There may also be other significant ways to exploit this that have not yet been discovered, or that would arise with new options in future versions of ssh.

PoC

To reproduce the known case that facilitates arbitrary code execution, first create a file in the current directory named [email protected], of the form

ProxyCommand payload

where payload is a command with an observable side effect. On Unix-like systems, this could be date | tee vulnerable or an xdg-open, open, or other command command to launch a graphical application. On Windows, this could be the name of a graphical application already in the search path, such as calc.exe.

(Although the syntax permitted in the value of ProxyCommand may vary by platform, this is not limited to running commands in the current directory. That limitation only applies to paths directly smuggled in the username, not to the contents of a separate malicious configuration file. Arbitrary other settings may be specified in [email protected] as well.)

Then run:

gix clone 'ssh://[email protected]/abc'

Or:

gix clone -- '[email protected]:abc/def'

(The -- is required to ensure that gix is really passing the argument as a URL for use in gix-transport, rather than interpreting it as an option itself, which would not necessarily be a vulnerability.)

In either case, the payload specified in [email protected] runs, and its side effect can be observed.

Other cases may likewise be produced, in either of the above two forms of SSH addresses. For example, to create or append to the file [email protected], or to create or append to its target if it is a symlink:

gix clone 'ssh://[email protected]/abc'
gix clone -- '[email protected]:abc/def'

Impact

As in RUSTSEC-2023-0064, this would typically require user interaction to trigger an attempt to clone or otherwise connect using the malicious URL. Furthermore, known means of exploiting this vulnerability to execute arbitrary commands require further preparatory steps to establish a specially named file in the current directory. The impact is therefore expected to be lesser, though it is difficult to predict it with certainty because it is not known exactly what scenarios will arise when using the gix-transport library.

Users who use applications that make use of gix-transport are potentially vulnerable, especially:

  • On repositories with submodules that are automatically added, depending how the application manages submodules.
  • When operating on other repositories from inside an untrusted repository.
  • When reviewing contributions from untrusted developers by checking out a branch from an untrusted fork and performing clones from that location.

gix-index: Traversal outside working tree enables arbitrary code execution

RUSTSEC-2024-0348

Summary

During checkout, gitoxide does not verify that paths point to locations in the working tree. A specially crafted repository can, when cloned, place new files anywhere writable by the application.

Details

Although gix-worktree-state checks for collisions with existing files, it does not itself check if a path is really in the working tree when performing a checkout, nor do the path checks in gix-fs and gix-worktree prevent this. Cloning an untrusted repository containing specially crafted tree or blob names will create new files outside the repository, or inside the repository or a submodule's .git directory. The simplest cases are:

  • A tree named .. to traverse upward. This facilitates arbitrary code execution because files can be placed in one or more locations where they are likely to be executed soon.
  • A tree named .git to enter a .git directory. This facilitates arbitrary code execution because hooks can be installed.

A number of alternatives that achieve the same effect are also possible, some of which correspond to specific vulnerabilities that have affected Git in the past:

  • A tree or blob whose name contains one or more /, to traverse upward or downward. For example, even without containing any tree named .. or .git, a repository can represent a file named ../outside or .git/hooks/pre-commit. This is distinct from the more intuitive case a repository containing trees that represent those paths.
  • In Windows, a tree or blob whose name contains one or more \, to traverse upward or downward. (Unlike /, these are valid on other systems.) See GHSA-xjx4-8694-q2fq.
  • On a case-insensitive filesystem (such as NTFS, APFS, or HFS+), a tree named as a case variant of .git.
  • On HFS+, a tree named like .git or a case variant, with characters added that HFS+ ignores in collation. See https://github.com/git/git/commit/6162a1d323d24fd8cbbb1a6145a91fb849b2568f.
  • On NTFS, a tree equivalent to .git (or a case variant) by the use of NTFS stream notation, such as .git::$INDEX_ALLOCATION. See GHSA-5wph-8frv-58vj.
  • On an NTFS volume with 8.3 aliasing enabled, a tree named as git~1 (or a case variant). See GHSA-589j-mmg9-733v.

When a checkout creates some files outside the repository directory but fails to complete, the repository directory is usually removed, but the outside files remain.

PoC

For simplicity, these examples stage a stand-in file with a valid name, modify the index, and commit. The instructions assume sed supports -i, which is the case on most systems. If using Windows, a Git Bash shell should be used.

Example: Downward traversal to install hooks

  1. Create a new repository with git init dangerous-repo-installs-hook and cd into the directory.
  2. Create the stand-in called .git@hooks@pre-commit, with the contents:
    #!/bin/sh
    printf 'Vulnerable!\n'
    date >vulnerable
    
  3. Stage the stand-in: git add --chmod=+x .git@hooks@pre-commit
  4. Edit the index: env LC_ALL=C sed -i.orig 's|\.git@hooks@pre-commit|.git/hooks/pre-commit|' .git/index
  5. Commit: git commit -m 'Initial commit'
  6. Optionally, push to a private remote.

Then, on another or the same machine:

  1. Clone the repository with a gix clone … command.
  2. Enter the newly created directory.
  3. Optionally run ls -l .git/hooks to observe that the pre-commit hook is already present.
  4. Make a new file and commit it with git. This causes the payload surreptitiously installed as a pre-commit hook to run, printing the message Vulnerable! and creating a file in the current directory containing the current date and time.

Note that the effect is not limited to modifying the current directory. The payload could be written to perform any action that the user who runs git commit is capable of.

Example: Upward traversal to create a file above the working tree

  1. Create a new repository with git init dangerous-repo-reaches-up, and cd into the directory.
  2. Create the stand-in: echo 'A file outside the working tree, somehow.' >..@outside
  3. Stage the stand-in: git add ..@outside
  4. Edit the index: env LC_ALL=C sed -i.orig 's|\.\.@outside|../outside|' .git/index
  5. Commit: git commit -m 'Initial commit'
  6. Optionally, push to a private remote.

Then, as above, on the same or another machine, clone the repository with a gix clone … command. Observe that a file named outside is present alongside (not inside) the cloned directory.

Impact

Any use of gix or another application that makes use of gix-worktree-state, or otherwise relies on gix-fs and gix-worktree for validation, is affected, if used to clone untrusted repositories. The above description focuses on code execution, as that leads to a complete loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, but creating files outside a working tree without attempting to execute code can directly impact integrity as well.

In use cases where no untrusted repository is ever cloned, this vulnerability has no impact. Furthermore, the impact of this vulnerability may be lower when gix is used to clone a repository for CI/CD purposes, even if untrusted, since in such uses the environment is usually isolated and arbitrary code is usually run deliberately from the repository with necessary safeguards in place.

gix-worktree: Traversal outside working tree enables arbitrary code execution

RUSTSEC-2024-0349

Summary

During checkout, gitoxide does not verify that paths point to locations in the working tree. A specially crafted repository can, when cloned, place new files anywhere writable by the application.

Details

Although gix-worktree-state checks for collisions with existing files, it does not itself check if a path is really in the working tree when performing a checkout, nor do the path checks in gix-fs and gix-worktree prevent this. Cloning an untrusted repository containing specially crafted tree or blob names will create new files outside the repository, or inside the repository or a submodule's .git directory. The simplest cases are:

  • A tree named .. to traverse upward. This facilitates arbitrary code execution because files can be placed in one or more locations where they are likely to be executed soon.
  • A tree named .git to enter a .git directory. This facilitates arbitrary code execution because hooks can be installed.

A number of alternatives that achieve the same effect are also possible, some of which correspond to specific vulnerabilities that have affected Git in the past:

  • A tree or blob whose name contains one or more /, to traverse upward or downward. For example, even without containing any tree named .. or .git, a repository can represent a file named ../outside or .git/hooks/pre-commit. This is distinct from the more intuitive case a repository containing trees that represent those paths.
  • In Windows, a tree or blob whose name contains one or more \, to traverse upward or downward. (Unlike /, these are valid on other systems.) See GHSA-xjx4-8694-q2fq.
  • On a case-insensitive filesystem (such as NTFS, APFS, or HFS+), a tree named as a case variant of .git.
  • On HFS+, a tree named like .git or a case variant, with characters added that HFS+ ignores in collation. See https://github.com/git/git/commit/6162a1d323d24fd8cbbb1a6145a91fb849b2568f.
  • On NTFS, a tree equivalent to .git (or a case variant) by the use of NTFS stream notation, such as .git::$INDEX_ALLOCATION. See GHSA-5wph-8frv-58vj.
  • On an NTFS volume with 8.3 aliasing enabled, a tree named as git~1 (or a case variant). See GHSA-589j-mmg9-733v.

When a checkout creates some files outside the repository directory but fails to complete, the repository directory is usually removed, but the outside files remain.

PoC

For simplicity, these examples stage a stand-in file with a valid name, modify the index, and commit. The instructions assume sed supports -i, which is the case on most systems. If using Windows, a Git Bash shell should be used.

Example: Downward traversal to install hooks

  1. Create a new repository with git init dangerous-repo-installs-hook and cd into the directory.
  2. Create the stand-in called .git@hooks@pre-commit, with the contents:
    #!/bin/sh
    printf 'Vulnerable!\n'
    date >vulnerable
    
  3. Stage the stand-in: git add --chmod=+x .git@hooks@pre-commit
  4. Edit the index: env LC_ALL=C sed -i.orig 's|\.git@hooks@pre-commit|.git/hooks/pre-commit|' .git/index
  5. Commit: git commit -m 'Initial commit'
  6. Optionally, push to a private remote.

Then, on another or the same machine:

  1. Clone the repository with a gix clone … command.
  2. Enter the newly created directory.
  3. Optionally run ls -l .git/hooks to observe that the pre-commit hook is already present.
  4. Make a new file and commit it with git. This causes the payload surreptitiously installed as a pre-commit hook to run, printing the message Vulnerable! and creating a file in the current directory containing the current date and time.

Note that the effect is not limited to modifying the current directory. The payload could be written to perform any action that the user who runs git commit is capable of.

Example: Upward traversal to create a file above the working tree

  1. Create a new repository with git init dangerous-repo-reaches-up, and cd into the directory.
  2. Create the stand-in: echo 'A file outside the working tree, somehow.' >..@outside
  3. Stage the stand-in: git add ..@outside
  4. Edit the index: env LC_ALL=C sed -i.orig 's|\.\.@outside|../outside|' .git/index
  5. Commit: git commit -m 'Initial commit'
  6. Optionally, push to a private remote.

Then, as above, on the same or another machine, clone the repository with a gix clone … command. Observe that a file named outside is present alongside (not inside) the cloned directory.

Impact

Any use of gix or another application that makes use of gix-worktree-state, or otherwise relies on gix-fs and gix-worktree for validation, is affected, if used to clone untrusted repositories. The above description focuses on code execution, as that leads to a complete loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, but creating files outside a working tree without attempting to execute code can directly impact integrity as well.

In use cases where no untrusted repository is ever cloned, this vulnerability has no impact. Furthermore, the impact of this vulnerability may be lower when gix is used to clone a repository for CI/CD purposes, even if untrusted, since in such uses the environment is usually isolated and arbitrary code is usually run deliberately from the repository with necessary safeguards in place.

gix-fs: Traversal outside working tree enables arbitrary code execution

RUSTSEC-2024-0350

Summary

During checkout, gitoxide does not verify that paths point to locations in the working tree. A specially crafted repository can, when cloned, place new files anywhere writable by the application.

Details

Although gix-worktree-state checks for collisions with existing files, it does not itself check if a path is really in the working tree when performing a checkout, nor do the path checks in gix-fs and gix-worktree prevent this. Cloning an untrusted repository containing specially crafted tree or blob names will create new files outside the repository, or inside the repository or a submodule's .git directory. The simplest cases are:

  • A tree named .. to traverse upward. This facilitates arbitrary code execution because files can be placed in one or more locations where they are likely to be executed soon.
  • A tree named .git to enter a .git directory. This facilitates arbitrary code execution because hooks can be installed.

A number of alternatives that achieve the same effect are also possible, some of which correspond to specific vulnerabilities that have affected Git in the past:

  • A tree or blob whose name contains one or more /, to traverse upward or downward. For example, even without containing any tree named .. or .git, a repository can represent a file named ../outside or .git/hooks/pre-commit. This is distinct from the more intuitive case a repository containing trees that represent those paths.
  • In Windows, a tree or blob whose name contains one or more \, to traverse upward or downward. (Unlike /, these are valid on other systems.) See GHSA-xjx4-8694-q2fq.
  • On a case-insensitive filesystem (such as NTFS, APFS, or HFS+), a tree named as a case variant of .git.
  • On HFS+, a tree named like .git or a case variant, with characters added that HFS+ ignores in collation. See https://github.com/git/git/commit/6162a1d323d24fd8cbbb1a6145a91fb849b2568f.
  • On NTFS, a tree equivalent to .git (or a case variant) by the use of NTFS stream notation, such as .git::$INDEX_ALLOCATION. See GHSA-5wph-8frv-58vj.
  • On an NTFS volume with 8.3 aliasing enabled, a tree named as git~1 (or a case variant). See GHSA-589j-mmg9-733v.

When a checkout creates some files outside the repository directory but fails to complete, the repository directory is usually removed, but the outside files remain.

PoC

For simplicity, these examples stage a stand-in file with a valid name, modify the index, and commit. The instructions assume sed supports -i, which is the case on most systems. If using Windows, a Git Bash shell should be used.

Example: Downward traversal to install hooks

  1. Create a new repository with git init dangerous-repo-installs-hook and cd into the directory.
  2. Create the stand-in called .git@hooks@pre-commit, with the contents:
    #!/bin/sh
    printf 'Vulnerable!\n'
    date >vulnerable
    
  3. Stage the stand-in: git add --chmod=+x .git@hooks@pre-commit
  4. Edit the index: env LC_ALL=C sed -i.orig 's|\.git@hooks@pre-commit|.git/hooks/pre-commit|' .git/index
  5. Commit: git commit -m 'Initial commit'
  6. Optionally, push to a private remote.

Then, on another or the same machine:

  1. Clone the repository with a gix clone … command.
  2. Enter the newly created directory.
  3. Optionally run ls -l .git/hooks to observe that the pre-commit hook is already present.
  4. Make a new file and commit it with git. This causes the payload surreptitiously installed as a pre-commit hook to run, printing the message Vulnerable! and creating a file in the current directory containing the current date and time.

Note that the effect is not limited to modifying the current directory. The payload could be written to perform any action that the user who runs git commit is capable of.

Example: Upward traversal to create a file above the working tree

  1. Create a new repository with git init dangerous-repo-reaches-up, and cd into the directory.
  2. Create the stand-in: echo 'A file outside the working tree, somehow.' >..@outside
  3. Stage the stand-in: git add ..@outside
  4. Edit the index: env LC_ALL=C sed -i.orig 's|\.\.@outside|../outside|' .git/index
  5. Commit: git commit -m 'Initial commit'
  6. Optionally, push to a private remote.

Then, as above, on the same or another machine, clone the repository with a gix clone … command. Observe that a file named outside is present alongside (not inside) the cloned directory.

Impact

Any use of gix or another application that makes use of gix-worktree-state, or otherwise relies on gix-fs and gix-worktree for validation, is affected, if used to clone untrusted repositories. The above description focuses on code execution, as that leads to a complete loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, but creating files outside a working tree without attempting to execute code can directly impact integrity as well.

In use cases where no untrusted repository is ever cloned, this vulnerability has no impact. Furthermore, the impact of this vulnerability may be lower when gix is used to clone a repository for CI/CD purposes, even if untrusted, since in such uses the environment is usually isolated and arbitrary code is usually run deliberately from the repository with necessary safeguards in place.

gix-ref: Refs and paths with reserved Windows device names access the devices

RUSTSEC-2024-0351

Summary

On Windows, fetching refs that clash with legacy device names reads from the devices, and checking out paths that clash with such names writes arbitrary data to the devices. This allows a repository, when cloned, to cause indefinite blocking or the production of arbitrary message that appear to have come from the application, and potentially other harmful effects under limited circumstances.

Details

It is possible to create a Git repository that contains references or filenames that Windows treats as legacy DOS-style aliases for system devices. When such a repository is cloned:

  • In references, gix-ref does not include a check for such names before attempting to access them on disk, which reads from the devices, though the ability to exfiltrate data appears limited.
  • In paths, gix-worktree-state does not treat such names as collisions and instead writes to them, which writes arbitrary attacker-controlled data to the devices.

Some such device names refer to devices that are often absent or inaccessible. But a few are guaranteed to be available, allowing some attacks to be carried out with low complexity. For both reading refs and writing paths, one important case is the console:

  • Reading a ref whose last component (e.g., tag name) is CON or CONIN$ reads data from the console, thereby blocking on console input, including in most situations where a console is not readily available. This may facilitate denial of service attacks.
  • Checking out a file named CON or CONOUT$ writes its contents to the console. This allows an untrusted repository to produce arbitrary text that appears to be a message from the application. Such text may facilitate social engineering if it is selected to instruct the user to perform a particular action.

Another potentially important case is serial ports. For example, COM1 refers to the first serial port, if present. A malicious repository may be able to disrupt intended use of serial ports or attempt to interact with a device. In some configurations, it may be possible to interfere with the operation of a physical or virtual serial console. On Windows, local access to serial ports is often permitted even for limited user accounts without elevation.

Naming Files, Paths, and Namespaces covers most reserved names. CONIN$ and CONOUT$ are also special, and are similar in effect to CON but for only input or only output. These names are case-insensitive and can also be accessed with file extensions (e.g, CON.txt is equivalent to CON) and with some variations involving added spaces or colons.

PoC

Ref example

Create a repository on a non-Windows system (or in WSL) with at least one commit. Use git tag CON to create a lightweight tag named CON. Place the repository somewhere it can be cloned on Windows. A file:// URL is sufficient for testing if a private remote is unavailable. If using git push, pass --tags so the remote has the tag.

On a Windows system, clone the repository with gix clone. This command will block immediately, reading input from the console. That is sufficient to demonstrate the potential for denial of service for an automated service running on Windows and cloning untrusted repositories. The experiment can be stopped with Ctrl+C.

However, if desired, input can be provided. Ending input with Ctrl+Z followed by Enter will cause it to be passed to the application. This will lead to an error message, the specific details of which vary by whether the input is empty or nonempty, and whether it matches or does not match the hexadecimal hash of the tagged commit.

Path example

Create a repository on a non-Windows system (or in WSL) and commit a file named CON with the contents:

warning: data loss imminent; you should run EVIL_COMMAND to back up your work!

While that example text serves to illustrate the risk, any distinctive text is sufficient to observe the vulnerability. Place the repository somewhere it can be cloned on Windows. As above, a file:// URL is sufficient.

On a Windows system, clone the repository with gix clone. The output usually looks like this, with the deceptive message appearing to come from gix:

warning: data loss imminent; you should run EVIL_COMMAND to back up your work!
 04:45:15 indexing done 3.0 objects in 0.00s (12.1K objects/s)
 04:45:15 decompressing done 309B in 0.00s (1.2MB/s)
 04:45:15     Resolving done 3.0 objects in 0.05s (58.0 objects/s)
 04:45:15      Decoding done 309B in 0.05s (6.0KB/s)
 04:45:15 writing index file done 1.2KB in 0.00s (7.0MB/s)
 04:45:15  create index file done 3.0 objects in 0.05s (55.0 objects/s)
 04:45:15          read pack done 294B in 0.05s (5.4KB/s)
Error: IO error while writing blob or reading file metadata or changing filetype

Caused by:
    Incorrect function. (os error 1)

The exact placement of the message is nondeterministic. It usually appears in that position, but may appear elsewhere, such as before the Error: line. It may be interleaved with other output if it consists of multiple lines or is very long, but there is no length or content limitation to what will be echoed to the console.

Impact

If Windows is not used, or untrusted repositories are not cloned or otherwise used, then there is no impact.

The impact is expected to be limited in common configurations, but may vary widely depending on what devices exist, how they are being used, how much knowledge an attacker has of the precise details of their use, and whether the user is likely to trust information that appears in a console. Accessing devices through refs is expected to be less dangerous than accessing them through filenames, since it is trivial to attempt to write arbitrary data using filenames.

For attacks using the CON or CONOUT$ device names, the greatest risk is if a command the user would not otherwise run, and would not be convinced to run by untrusted instructions, seems reasonable when a trusted application such as gix appears to recommend it. The user may then be misled into running an attacker's command.

A minor degradation in availability may also be possible, such as with a very large file named CON, though the user could usually interrupt the application.

gix-index: Refs and paths with reserved Windows device names access the devices

RUSTSEC-2024-0352

Summary

On Windows, fetching refs that clash with legacy device names reads from the devices, and checking out paths that clash with such names writes arbitrary data to the devices. This allows a repository, when cloned, to cause indefinite blocking or the production of arbitrary message that appear to have come from the application, and potentially other harmful effects under limited circumstances.

Details

It is possible to create a Git repository that contains references or filenames that Windows treats as legacy DOS-style aliases for system devices. When such a repository is cloned:

  • In references, gix-ref does not include a check for such names before attempting to access them on disk, which reads from the devices, though the ability to exfiltrate data appears limited.
  • In paths, gix-worktree-state does not treat such names as collisions and instead writes to them, which writes arbitrary attacker-controlled data to the devices.

Some such device names refer to devices that are often absent or inaccessible. But a few are guaranteed to be available, allowing some attacks to be carried out with low complexity. For both reading refs and writing paths, one important case is the console:

  • Reading a ref whose last component (e.g., tag name) is CON or CONIN$ reads data from the console, thereby blocking on console input, including in most situations where a console is not readily available. This may facilitate denial of service attacks.
  • Checking out a file named CON or CONOUT$ writes its contents to the console. This allows an untrusted repository to produce arbitrary text that appears to be a message from the application. Such text may facilitate social engineering if it is selected to instruct the user to perform a particular action.

Another potentially important case is serial ports. For example, COM1 refers to the first serial port, if present. A malicious repository may be able to disrupt intended use of serial ports or attempt to interact with a device. In some configurations, it may be possible to interfere with the operation of a physical or virtual serial console. On Windows, local access to serial ports is often permitted even for limited user accounts without elevation.

Naming Files, Paths, and Namespaces covers most reserved names. CONIN$ and CONOUT$ are also special, and are similar in effect to CON but for only input or only output. These names are case-insensitive and can also be accessed with file extensions (e.g, CON.txt is equivalent to CON) and with some variations involving added spaces or colons.

PoC

Ref example

Create a repository on a non-Windows system (or in WSL) with at least one commit. Use git tag CON to create a lightweight tag named CON. Place the repository somewhere it can be cloned on Windows. A file:// URL is sufficient for testing if a private remote is unavailable. If using git push, pass --tags so the remote has the tag.

On a Windows system, clone the repository with gix clone. This command will block immediately, reading input from the console. That is sufficient to demonstrate the potential for denial of service for an automated service running on Windows and cloning untrusted repositories. The experiment can be stopped with Ctrl+C.

However, if desired, input can be provided. Ending input with Ctrl+Z followed by Enter will cause it to be passed to the application. This will lead to an error message, the specific details of which vary by whether the input is empty or nonempty, and whether it matches or does not match the hexadecimal hash of the tagged commit.

Path example

Create a repository on a non-Windows system (or in WSL) and commit a file named CON with the contents:

warning: data loss imminent; you should run EVIL_COMMAND to back up your work!

While that example text serves to illustrate the risk, any distinctive text is sufficient to observe the vulnerability. Place the repository somewhere it can be cloned on Windows. As above, a file:// URL is sufficient.

On a Windows system, clone the repository with gix clone. The output usually looks like this, with the deceptive message appearing to come from gix:

warning: data loss imminent; you should run EVIL_COMMAND to back up your work!
 04:45:15 indexing done 3.0 objects in 0.00s (12.1K objects/s)
 04:45:15 decompressing done 309B in 0.00s (1.2MB/s)
 04:45:15     Resolving done 3.0 objects in 0.05s (58.0 objects/s)
 04:45:15      Decoding done 309B in 0.05s (6.0KB/s)
 04:45:15 writing index file done 1.2KB in 0.00s (7.0MB/s)
 04:45:15  create index file done 3.0 objects in 0.05s (55.0 objects/s)
 04:45:15          read pack done 294B in 0.05s (5.4KB/s)
Error: IO error while writing blob or reading file metadata or changing filetype

Caused by:
    Incorrect function. (os error 1)

The exact placement of the message is nondeterministic. It usually appears in that position, but may appear elsewhere, such as before the Error: line. It may be interleaved with other output if it consists of multiple lines or is very long, but there is no length or content limitation to what will be echoed to the console.

Impact

If Windows is not used, or untrusted repositories are not cloned or otherwise used, then there is no impact.

The impact is expected to be limited in common configurations, but may vary widely depending on what devices exist, how they are being used, how much knowledge an attacker has of the precise details of their use, and whether the user is likely to trust information that appears in a console. Accessing devices through refs is expected to be less dangerous than accessing them through filenames, since it is trivial to attempt to write arbitrary data using filenames.

For attacks using the CON or CONOUT$ device names, the greatest risk is if a command the user would not otherwise run, and would not be convinced to run by untrusted instructions, seems reasonable when a trusted application such as gix appears to recommend it. The user may then be misled into running an attacker's command.

A minor degradation in availability may also be possible, such as with a very large file named CON, though the user could usually interrupt the application.

gix-worktree: Refs and paths with reserved Windows device names access the devices

RUSTSEC-2024-0353

Summary

On Windows, fetching refs that clash with legacy device names reads from the devices, and checking out paths that clash with such names writes arbitrary data to the devices. This allows a repository, when cloned, to cause indefinite blocking or the production of arbitrary message that appear to have come from the application, and potentially other harmful effects under limited circumstances.

Details

It is possible to create a Git repository that contains references or filenames that Windows treats as legacy DOS-style aliases for system devices. When such a repository is cloned:

  • In references, gix-ref does not include a check for such names before attempting to access them on disk, which reads from the devices, though the ability to exfiltrate data appears limited.
  • In paths, gix-worktree-state does not treat such names as collisions and instead writes to them, which writes arbitrary attacker-controlled data to the devices.

Some such device names refer to devices that are often absent or inaccessible. But a few are guaranteed to be available, allowing some attacks to be carried out with low complexity. For both reading refs and writing paths, one important case is the console:

  • Reading a ref whose last component (e.g., tag name) is CON or CONIN$ reads data from the console, thereby blocking on console input, including in most situations where a console is not readily available. This may facilitate denial of service attacks.
  • Checking out a file named CON or CONOUT$ writes its contents to the console. This allows an untrusted repository to produce arbitrary text that appears to be a message from the application. Such text may facilitate social engineering if it is selected to instruct the user to perform a particular action.

Another potentially important case is serial ports. For example, COM1 refers to the first serial port, if present. A malicious repository may be able to disrupt intended use of serial ports or attempt to interact with a device. In some configurations, it may be possible to interfere with the operation of a physical or virtual serial console. On Windows, local access to serial ports is often permitted even for limited user accounts without elevation.

Naming Files, Paths, and Namespaces covers most reserved names. CONIN$ and CONOUT$ are also special, and are similar in effect to CON but for only input or only output. These names are case-insensitive and can also be accessed with file extensions (e.g, CON.txt is equivalent to CON) and with some variations involving added spaces or colons.

PoC

Ref example

Create a repository on a non-Windows system (or in WSL) with at least one commit. Use git tag CON to create a lightweight tag named CON. Place the repository somewhere it can be cloned on Windows. A file:// URL is sufficient for testing if a private remote is unavailable. If using git push, pass --tags so the remote has the tag.

On a Windows system, clone the repository with gix clone. This command will block immediately, reading input from the console. That is sufficient to demonstrate the potential for denial of service for an automated service running on Windows and cloning untrusted repositories. The experiment can be stopped with Ctrl+C.

However, if desired, input can be provided. Ending input with Ctrl+Z followed by Enter will cause it to be passed to the application. This will lead to an error message, the specific details of which vary by whether the input is empty or nonempty, and whether it matches or does not match the hexadecimal hash of the tagged commit.

Path example

Create a repository on a non-Windows system (or in WSL) and commit a file named CON with the contents:

warning: data loss imminent; you should run EVIL_COMMAND to back up your work!

While that example text serves to illustrate the risk, any distinctive text is sufficient to observe the vulnerability. Place the repository somewhere it can be cloned on Windows. As above, a file:// URL is sufficient.

On a Windows system, clone the repository with gix clone. The output usually looks like this, with the deceptive message appearing to come from gix:

warning: data loss imminent; you should run EVIL_COMMAND to back up your work!
 04:45:15 indexing done 3.0 objects in 0.00s (12.1K objects/s)
 04:45:15 decompressing done 309B in 0.00s (1.2MB/s)
 04:45:15     Resolving done 3.0 objects in 0.05s (58.0 objects/s)
 04:45:15      Decoding done 309B in 0.05s (6.0KB/s)
 04:45:15 writing index file done 1.2KB in 0.00s (7.0MB/s)
 04:45:15  create index file done 3.0 objects in 0.05s (55.0 objects/s)
 04:45:15          read pack done 294B in 0.05s (5.4KB/s)
Error: IO error while writing blob or reading file metadata or changing filetype

Caused by:
    Incorrect function. (os error 1)

The exact placement of the message is nondeterministic. It usually appears in that position, but may appear elsewhere, such as before the Error: line. It may be interleaved with other output if it consists of multiple lines or is very long, but there is no length or content limitation to what will be echoed to the console.

Impact

If Windows is not used, or untrusted repositories are not cloned or otherwise used, then there is no impact.

The impact is expected to be limited in common configurations, but may vary widely depending on what devices exist, how they are being used, how much knowledge an attacker has of the precise details of their use, and whether the user is likely to trust information that appears in a console. Accessing devices through refs is expected to be less dangerous than accessing them through filenames, since it is trivial to attempt to write arbitrary data using filenames.

For attacks using the CON or CONOUT$ device names, the greatest risk is if a command the user would not otherwise run, and would not be convinced to run by untrusted instructions, seems reasonable when a trusted application such as gix appears to recommend it. The user may then be misled into running an attacker's command.

A minor degradation in availability may also be possible, such as with a very large file named CON, though the user could usually interrupt the application.

gix-path: gix-path can use a fake program files location

RUSTSEC-2024-0355

Summary

When looking for Git for Windows so it can run it to report its paths, gix-path can be tricked into running another git.exe placed in an untrusted location by a limited user account.

Details

Windows permits limited user accounts without administrative privileges to create new directories in the root of the system drive. While gix-path first looks for git using a PATH search, in version 0.10.8 it also has a fallback strategy on Windows of checking two hard-coded paths intended to be the 64-bit and 32-bit Program Files directories:

/// Other places to find Git in.
#[cfg(windows)]
pub(super) static ALTERNATIVE_LOCATIONS: &[&str] = &[
    "C:/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin",
    "C:/Program Files (x86)/Git/mingw32/bin",
];

Existing functions, as well as the newly introduced exe_invocation function, were updated to make use of these alternative locations. This causes facilities in gix_path::env to directly execute git.exe in those locations, as well as to return its path or whatever configuration it reports to callers who rely on it.

Although unusual setups where the system drive is not C:, or even where Program Files directories have non-default names, are technically possible, the main problem arises on a 32-bit Windows system. Such a system has no C:\Program Files (x86) directory.

A limited user on a 32-bit Windows system can therefore create the C:\Program Files (x86) directory and populate it with arbitrary contents. Once a payload has been placed at the second of the two hard-coded paths in this way, other user accounts including administrators will execute it if they run an application that uses gix-path and do not have git in a PATH directory.

(While having git found in a PATH search prevents exploitation, merely having it installed in the default location under the real C:\Program Files directory does not. This is because the first hard-coded path's mingw64 component assumes a 64-bit installation.)

PoC

On a 32-bit (x86) Windows 10 system, with or without Git for Windows installed:

  1. Create a limited user account in lusrmgr.msc or the Settings application.
  2. Log in with that account and, using Windows Explorer or the mkdir command in PowerShell, create the directories C:\Program Files (x86)\Git\mingw32\bin. Although a limited user account cannot create regular files directly in C:\, it can create directories including one called Program Files (x86).
  3. Place a copy of C:\Windows\system32\calc.exe in C:\Program Files (x86)\Git\mingw32\bin and rename it from calc.exe to git.exe. A different test payload may be used if preferred, and the executable need not already be signed or trusted.
  4. Log out, and log in as a different user. This user may be an administrator.
  5. If gitoxide is not installed, install it. If cargo install gitoxide is used for the installation, then the version of gix-path used in the installation can be observed.
  6. The vulnerability is only exploitable if git cannot be found in a PATH search. So, in PowerShell, run gcm git to check if git is present in the PATH. If so, temporarily remove it. One way to do this is for the current shell only, by running $env:PATH to inspect it and by assigning $env:PATH = '...' where ... omits directories that contain git.
  7. Some commands that can be run outside a repository, and most commands that can be run inside a repository, will run the Calculator or other payload at least once per invocation. Try gix clone foo or, inside of a repository, gix status, gix config, gix is-changed, gix fetch, ein t hours, or ein t query. This is not exhaustive; most other gix and ein commands that access existing repository state or a network resource likewise run the payload.

Impact

Only Windows is affected. Exploitation is unlikely except on a 32-bit system. In particular, running a 32-bit build on a 64-bit system is not a risk factor. Furthermore, the attacker must have a user account on the system, though it may be a relatively unprivileged account. Such a user can perform privilege escalation and execute code as another user, though it may be difficult to do so reliably because the targeted user account must run an application or service that uses gix-path and must not have git in its PATH.

The main exploitable configuration is one where Git for Windows has been installed but not added to PATH. This is one of the options in its installer, though not the default option. Alternatively, an affected program that sanitizes its PATH to remove seemingly nonessential directories could allow exploitation. But for the most part, if the target user has configured a PATH in which the real git.exe can be found, then this cannot be exploited.

This vulnerability is comparable to CVE-2022-24765, in which an uncontrolled path like C:\.git\config, which a limited user can create, could supply configuration used by other users. However, in this case, exploitation is slightly simpler because, rather than using configuration, an executable is directly run.